1701 01 18 The first Prussian king crowns himself at Königsberg to begin a 12-year reign as Frederick I. The Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I has given the elector of Brandenburg Frederick III, 42, sanction to assume the monarchy in return for a promise of military aid.
1701 04 XX Sir Harry Wildair by George Farquhar at London’s Drury Lane Theatre.
1701 06 10 Great Northern War
(Russia, Poland & Denmark vs. Sweden & Saxony) continues with a Saxon siege of Riga. Swedens Charles XII relieves the city and proceeds to invade Poland, beginning a 6-year string of victories over Poland and Saxony.
1701 07 06 Pirate William Kidd goes to the gallows. Seized at Boston in 1699, Kidd has been sent to England for trial, but the rope breaks twice before he is dispatched (see 1698).
1701 07 24 Fort Pontchartrain de Détroit established on the strait between Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair by Sieur Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, 43, who needs a fort to control the entrance to Lake Huron from Lake Erie and thus control trade with the Illinois country of Louisiana.
1701 09 07 War of the Spanish Succession
(Spain & France vs. England & Holland, The Grand Alliance)
The war begins in Europe as Philip of Anjou gains recognition as king of Spain, especially in Castile, and the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I moves to take over Spains Dutch and Italian possessions (see 1700). England and Holland, fearful of having the France of Louis XIV joined with Spain, form a Grand Alliance with the emperor, and Eugene, prince of Savoy, joins the alliance.
1701 12 XX Tamerlane by Nicholas Rowe, at the Lincolns Inn Fields Theatre.
1701 12 XX The Funeral, or Grief à-la-mode by English playwright-essayist Richard Steele, 29, in December at the Drury Lane.
1701 XX XX The Battle of Feyiase in West Africa ends in victory for Ashanti tribesmen over their onetime overlords, the Denkyira. Osei Tutu, their leader, will build a powerful empire in the next decade, enriching his people by trading in gold and slaves (see 1712).
1701 XX XX Louisiana becomes a province of France covering most of the area drained by the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio rivers (see 1682; 1699; 1763).
1701 XX XX The Charter of Privileges gives Pennsylvania the most liberal government of any English colony in America (see PENN, 1682).
1701 XX XX London Jews build a synagogue in Bevis Marks that will stand for more than 2 centuries (see 1657). The congregation consists entirely of Sephardic (Spanish and Portuguese) Jews (see 1723).
1701 XX XX Yale University has its beginnings in the Collegiate School established at Saybrook in the Connecticut colony (see ELIHU YALE, 1718).
1701 XX XX The University of Venice is founded.
1701 XX XX Hankampu by Japanese historian Arai Hakuseki, 27, is a history of Japans daimyo (feudal lords).
1701 XX XX A seed-planting drill invented by Berkshire farmer Jethro Tull, 27, sows three parallel rows of seeds at once and will increase crop yields by reducing seed waste (see 1782; SWIFT, 1726).

1702 02 XX The Inconstant, or The Way to Win Him by George Farquhar in February at Londons Drury Lane Theatre.
1702 03 08 Englands William III dies at age 51 after falling from his horse and suffering a chill. He is succeeded by his sister-in-law Anne, 37, who will reign until 1714, the last monarch of the House of Stuart.
1702 03 11 Londons Daily Courant begins publication. The citys first daily newspaper, it will have 20 competitors by the end of the century.
1702 05 14 War of the Spanish Succession
(Spain & France vs. England & Holland, The Grand Alliance) War widens in Europe as the Grand Alliance declares war on France.
1702 06 XX War of the Spanish Succession
(Spain & France vs. England & Holland, The Grand Alliance) John Churchill forced the surrender of Kaiserswerth on the Rhine.
1702 09 XX War of the Spanish Succession
(Spain & France vs. England & Holland, The Grand Alliance) John Churchill forced the surrender of Venlo on the Meuse.
1702 10 XX War of the Spanish Succession
(Spain & France vs. England & Holland, The Grand Alliance) Sir George Rooke, 52, captures part of the Spanish treasure fleet at Vigo Bay after failing to take Cadiz. Rooke destroys the warships of France and Spain.
1702 10 29 War of the Spanish Succession
(Spain & France vs. England & Holland, The Grand Alliance) John Churchill forced the surrender of Lige.
1702 11 26 She Woud and She Woud Not, or The King Imposter by Colley Cibber at the Drury Lane.
1702 12 14 War of the Spanish Succession
(Spain & France vs. England & Holland, The Grand Alliance) Queen Anne names John Churchill, 52, husband of her court favorite Sarah, as captain-general of Englands land forces and raises him from earl of Marlborough to duke of Marlborough.
1702 12 14 The Chusingura Forty-Seven Ronin incident stirs Japan as retainers of the late lord of Ako, Asano Naganori, kill Kira Yoshinaka. The 47 ronin (unemployed samurai) have followed Confucian ethic in avenging the death at 62 of their lord, who was ordered to commit seppuku (ritual suicide) last year for fighting at Edo Castle but they have broken the law in killing the kinsman of the shogun and will be ordered to commit seppuku.
1702 XX XX Great Northern War
(Russia, Poland & Denmark vs. Sweden & Saxony)
Warsaw and Cracow fall to Swedens Charles XII, who has invaded Poland in the war that will be fought largely on Polish soil.
1702 XX XX Dutch jurist Cornelius van Bynkershoek, 29, establishes the 3-mile territorial sea zone, ruling that a nations territory extends 3 miles offshore (see GROTIUS, 1609). Van Bynkershoek will be made a member of the Supreme Council of Holland, Zeeland, and West Friesland next year (see 1793).
1702 XX XX East and West Jersey combine to form the English colony New Jersey (see 1665; 1676).
1702 XX XX Mobile, Alabama, has its beginnings in the Fort Louis settlement founded by the Lemoyne brothers (see 1699). First French settlement on the Gulf Coast, Mobile will take its name from that of the Mauvilia Indians who inhabit the region (see 1704).
1702 XX XX A yellow fever epidemic kills 570 New Yorkers.
1702 XX XX Fire destroys important scientific papers at Swedens great center of learning at Uppsala.
1702 XX XX Magnalia Christi Americana by Cotton Mather is a well-documented history of New England compiled to show that God is at work in the new land (see 1693; SMALLPOX INOCULATION, 1721).
1702 XX XX Japanese painter Korin Ogota, 41, unites the two imperial schools of Japanese painting, the Kano and the Yamato.
1702 XX XX England’s Queen Anne gives royal approval to horseracing and originates the sweepstakes idea of racing for cash prizes (see ASCOT, 1711).
1702 XX XX Salzburgs Church of the Holy Trinity is completed by J. B. Fischer von Erlach after 8 years of work.

1708 12 31 Great Alliance captures Bridge

1711 21 31 Duke of Marlborough fired as English army commander

1717 XX XX Toccata & Fugue in Dm Johann Sebastian Bach

1720 12 31 Charles Edward Stuart born.
1720 XX XX Lute suite in E major Johann Sebastian Bach
1720 XX XX Prélude Johann Sebastian Bach

1721 XX XX Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G (BWV 1048) Johann Sebastian Bach

1723 XX XX Concerto No. 1 in A minor for Violin, Strings and Basso Continuo (BWV 1041) Johann Sebastian Bach
1723? XX XX Italian Concerto (BWV 971) Johann Sebastian Bach


1728 02 28 Battle of Palkhed
1728 03 06 Spain & England sign (1st) Convention of Pardo
1728 12 23 Prussian Emperor Karel VI signs Treaty of Berlin
1728 XX XX Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley
1728 XX XX Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala
1728 XX XX Universidad de la Habana founded in Havana, Cuba
1728 XX XX Abdalmalik becomes Sultan of Morocco
1728 XX XX Abu’l Abbas Ahmad II becomes Sultan of Morocco
1728 XX XX Vitus Bering sails through the Bering Strait.
1728 XX XX Copenhagen, two fifths of the city burned down during three days. 3,650 families homeless.
1728 XX XX Treaty of Kiakhta redefines boundaries between Russia and China
1728 XX XX Second Fox War begins

1729 XX XX St. Matthew Passion (BWV 244) Johann Sebastian Bach

1732 02 22 George Washington born.


1735 10 30 John Adams born.

1738 12 31 Charles Lord Cornwallis born.


1743 04 13 Thomas Jefferson born.

1744 12 31 James Bradley announces discovery of Earth’s motion of nutation (wobble)

1745 12 31 Bonnie Prince Charlies army meets with de Esk



1751 03 16 James Madison born.

1756 12 31 Russia joins the Alliance of Versailles

1758 04 28 James Monroe born.
1758 12 31 British expeditionary army occupies Goree (Dakar) Senegal

1762 03 17 New Yorks first St. Patricks Day parade steps off to celebrate a man historians will agree was not named Patrick, was not Irish, did not drive the snakes from Ireland, did not bring Christianity to Ireland, and was not born March 17. Irish-Americans will grow in number until New York has a larger Irish population than Dublin, the parade will grow to become an event of paralyzing proportions, and it will never be canceled on account of inclement weather.
1762 12 31 Mozart family moves from Vienna to Salzburg

1763 XX XX Ottawa chief Pontiac leads tribesmen of the American Northwest in an uprising against Detroit and other British forts in an effort to drive the white settlers back east across the Alleghenies, but the Ottawa are deserted by their French allies in their siege of Detroit.

1767 03 15 John Quincy Adams born.

1773 02 09 William Henry Harrison born.

1775 04 19 The American Revolutionary War begins.
1775 05 02 St. Patrick’s Day, or The Scheming Lieutenant by Sheridanat Londons Royal Theatre in Covent Garden
1775 12 31 Battle of Québec

1776 01 10 Continental Congress president John Hancock signs the Declaration of Independence, writing his name in large letters and saying, “There, I guess King George will be able to read that.” The Declaration is set in type and printed in a shop at 48 High Street and signed on and after August 2 by members of Congress including Benjamin Franklin, who says, “We must all hang together, else we shall all hang separately.” Thomas Paines pamphlet Common Sense, published at Philadelphia has persuaded many of the 56 signers.
1776 01 XX First performances: Serenade No. 6 in D major for two Small Orchestras (Serenata Notturna) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart at Salzburg
1776 02 08 Theater: Stella by Wolfgang von Goethe at Hamburg
1776 02 13 The Twins (Die Zwillinge) by German playwright Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger, 24, at Hamburg
1776 02 27 The Battle of Moores Creek Bridge ends in defeat for Scottish Loyalists from upper North Carolina who lose 900 prisoners to Carolina patriots near Wilmington. The Americans discourage Gen. Henry Clinton, 38, from landing a British expeditionary force.
1776 02 XX Hymn Rock of Ages verses by London editor Augustus Toplady are published in the February issue of The Gospel.
1776 03 17 British troops evacuate. Gen. William Howe, 46, sails for Nova Scotia with 900 Loyalists; many will settle in New Brunswick.
1776 04 01 Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) by Friedrich von Klinger at Leipzig (von Klinger will move to St. Petersburg in 1780, enter the Russian army, be elevated to the nobility, and, in 1790, marry an illegitimate daughter of Catherine the Great; the title of his new play will provide the name for a German literary movement headed by Goethe and Schiller)
1776 06 XX Smallpox decimates the Continental army in the north. By June some 5,500 of the 10,000-man force are incapacitated, largely by the dread pox to which the British are generally immune as a result of having had mild bouts with the disease in childhood or in some cases by inoculation.
1776 06 28 Patriots at Sullivans Island off Charleston, South Carolina (Fort Moultrie), repulse a British fleet under Gen. Clinton and Sir Peter Parker, 55.
1776 06 30 Gen. Howe lands on Staten Island.
1776 07 04 The Declaration of Independence signed at Philadelphia follows military action in the American Revolution.
1776 07 12 Gen. Howe on Staten Island is joined by a British fleet under the command of his older brother Lord Richard Howe, 50, and on August 1 by Gen. Clinton.
1776 07 22 Serenade No. 7 in D major (Haffner) by W. A. Mozart, is first performed at Vienna, for the marriage of Elisabeth Haffner, daughter of the late Viennese burgomaster, to F. X. Spath.
1776 08 27 The Battle of Long Island ends in defeat for 8,000 patriots under Gen. Israel Putnam at the hands of Gen. Howes 20,000 regulars.
1776 09 06 Bushnells Connecticut Turtle pioneers the use of the submarine in warfare. Built by Yale graduate David Bushnell, 34, the pear-shaped 7-foot vessel is made of oak staves held together with pitch and iron hoops. It has ballast tanks operated by foot pumps, its conning tower has windows level with the head of the operator who uses two air tubes for intake and exhaustion of air (automatic valves close them for diving), is propelled horizontally and vertically by hand-cranked propellers and guided by a flexible rudder, carries a powder magazine with a clock timer, and goes into action the night of September 6 in New York Harbor. Bushnells craft has an auger mounted on its top to bore a hole into the wooden hull of an enemy vessel so that it may plant its powder magazine, but many of the British vessels have copperclad bottoms to protect them against shipworms, and several attempts to plant charges prove fruitless.
1776 09 11 Gen. Howe and his secretary Sir Henry Starchey meet in a house on Staten Island with John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and Edward Rutledge in an effort to end the war by negotiation. Howe learns for the first time that the Declaration of Independence has been signed, the Americans refuse to retract the document, and negotiations break off.
1776 09 15 Gen. Howe lands at Kips Bay and occupies New York City. He narrowly misses catching Washington, who retreats to Harlem Heights and repulses a British attack September 16 with help from his sharpshooters. Armed with Pennsylvania long rifles, they can fire accurately at 200 to 400 yards, while musket balls carry effectively only 80 to 100 yards (the British will complain that American sharpshooters are unsportsmanlike in concentrating their fire on officers).
1776 09 21 The British capture Continental army captain Nathan Hale, 21, on his return to Manhattan from an espionage mission to gather intelligence on Long Island. Hale has set numerous fires to harry the British in New York, disguised himself as a Dutch schoolmaster to avoid arrest, and is hanged September 22 by order of Gen. Howe. His last words will be reported as “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”
1776 XX XX Polish military tactician Tadeusz Andrzej Bonawentura Kosciuszko, 30, enters the Continental army as a volunteer, having been wounded by the retainers of Sosnowski of Sownowicka, the Grand Hetman, with whose youngest daughter he tried to elope. Kosciuszko has studied fortification and naval tactics at Polish government expense in Prussia, France, and Italy, and distinguishes himself in the American cause. Gen. Washington will make him his adjutant and raise him to the rank of colonel of artillery (see 1794).
1776 10 11 Benedict Arnold’s fleet on Lake Champlain is defeated in the Battle of the Island of Valcour, but Arnold has delayed the southward advance of Sir Guy Carleton, who takes Crown Point but soon withdraws to Canada.
1776 10 28 The Battle of White Plains gives Gen. Howe a narrow victory over Gen. Washington.
1776 11 20 Gen. Nathanael Greene surrenders Fort Lee to the British; Washington begins a retreat across New Jersey the next day, with Gen. Charles Cornwallis, 38, in hot pursuit.
1776 12 05 The Phi Beta Kappa Society is founded at Virginias 83-year-old College of William and Mary in Williamsburg by five young men who have gathered at a local tavern for conviviality and to debate such subjects as Whether French politics be more injurious than New England rum or Had William the Norman a right to invade England? (Chapters of the new scholastic fraternity will be established at Harvard and Yale in 1779, Harvard men will debate the question of whether Adam had a navel, Yale men whether females have intellectual capacities equal to those of males, and election to PBK will carry great prestige in U.S. academic circles.)
1776 12 26 Washington crosses the Delaware Christmas night, surprises the Hessians at Trenton, and turns the tide of the war by taking more than 1,000 prisoners at the Battle of Trenton.
1776 12 31 Rhode Island establishes wage & price controls to curb inflation
1776 XX XX Catherine the Greats court favorite Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin, 37, builds a Russian Black Sea fleet. Potemkin distinguished himself in 1769 fighting the Turks.
1776 XX XX Thomas Jeffersons draft has been edited to delete an attack on slavery.
1776 XX XX Delaware forbids further importation of slaves as the slave population in the colonies reaches 500,000.
1776 XX XX San Francisco has its beginnings in the settlement of Yerba Buena (good herb) established by Spanish monks in California.
1776 XX XX The Continental Congress starts a national lottery to raise money for the Continental army.
1776 XX XX Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations by Scottish philosopher Adam Smith, 53, of Kirkcaldy, Fifeshire, proposes a system of natural liberty in trade and commerce (see HUME, 1739). Consumption is the sole end and purpose of all production, and the interest of the producer ought to be attended to, only so far as it may be necessary for promoting that of the consumer, who in the long run has full control over what will and will not be produced, says Smith, who teaches at the University of Glasgow. His massive work establishes the classical school of political economy and will influence all future thinking on politics and economics, but it shows no awareness of the developing industrial revolution, and while it espouses free-market competition with limited government intervention it regards unemployment as a necessary evil to keep costsand therefore pricesin check (see RICARDO, 1817).
1776 XX XX “The discovery of America, and that of a passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, are the two greatest and most important events recorded in the history of mankind”, writes Adam Smith.
1776 XX XX Karl Wilhelm Scheele discovers uric acid in a kidney stone.
1776 Jan/Dec “These are the times that try mens souls,” writes Thomas Paine in The Crisis, first in a series of 16 pamphlets that he will publish under that title in the next 7 years. Paine’s January pamphlet Common Sense marshalled arguments for the justice of the revolutionary cause, sold half a million copies almost overnight, and won its author a position as aide to Gen. Greene. His December pamphlet The Crisis has a similar electrifying effect.
1776 XX XX The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by English historian Edward Gibbon, 39, is published in its first volume and creates a controversy over the rise of Christianity.
1776 XX XX Painting: The Washerwoman by Jean Honor Fragonard.
1776 XX XX Sculpture: Voltaire by French sculptor Jean Baptiste Pigalle, 62.
1776 XX XX The Soldiers (Die Soldaten) by German playwright-poet Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, 25, who has followed Goethe to Weimar but is forced to leave because of his bad manners and tactlessness (Lenz will suffer a mental breakdown); Mustapha et Zeangir by Sebastien Chamfort, whose tragedy brings him a pension from the French royal family and confirms his success in society.
1776 XX XX The Bolshoi Theater is founded at Moscow.
1776 XX XX Viennas Burgtheater opens to give the city a new opera house and concert hall. The Holy Roman Emperor Josef II has founded the theater and forbids curtain calls, feeling that he is more worthy of applause than his servants the actors.
1776 XX XX England’s St. Leger stakes race has its first running at Doncaster as its founder, Col. Barry St. Leger, 39, prepares to leave for America to join Gen. Burgoyne in the Hudson Valley.
1776 XX XX Cattle ranches begin to flourish on the Argentine pampas as Spain creates the Viceroyalty of La Plata with its capital at Buenos Aires.
1776 XX XX A good harvest in France reduces the price of bread, but the French again abolish internal free trade in grain.
1776 XX XX Philadelphias population reaches 40,000, making it larger than Boston and New York (24,000) combined.

1777 01 03 The Battle of Princeton gives Gen. Washington a victory over three British regiments under Gen. Cornwallis. Gen. Benedict Arnold defeats the British April 27 at Ridgefield, Connecticut. The American garrison at Fort Ticonderoga abandons the fort at news that Gen. John Burgoyne is approaching, Burgoyne defeats the retreating garrison force July 7 at Hubbarton, Vermont. Gen. Philip Schuyler evacuates Fort Edward July 29, and the British take it, but Americans under Gen. Nicholas Herkimer check the British in their march down the Mohawk Valley, defeating them August 6 in the Battle of Oriskany despite the loss of Gen. Herkimer in battle.
1777 08 16 The Battle of Bennington ends in victory for the Americans under Capt. John Stark, who receives support from Col. Seth Warner, but although the British abandon their siege of Fort Stanwix August 22 at the approach of Benedict Arnold, they defeat Gen. Washington September 22 at the Battle of Brandywine.
1777 07 31 The Continental Congress has voted to accept the services of French captain of dragoons Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, 19, marquis de Lafayette, who was orphaned 6 years ago but was left with a princely fortune. Louis XVI forbade Lafayette to pursue his plan to support the American cause, but the young man escaped from custody, picked up a little English en route to America, landed in South Carolina, hurried to Philadelphia, and has been given the rank of major general. Gen. Lafayette is wounded at Brandywine but soon secures the command of a division.
1777 09 19 The First Battle of Saratoga (Bemis Heights) inflicts heavy losses on the British, but the redcoats hold their ground, and other British forces defeat Anthony Wayne at Paoli, Pennsylvania, September 20. Gen. Howe occupies Philadelphia September 26 and defeats Washington at Germantown October 6.
1777 10 07 The Second Battle of Saratoga gives Gen. Horatio Gates a decisive victory over Gen. Burgoyne, who surrenders with his entire force. Benedict Arnold has inspired Gates to defeat the British, Gen. Burgoyne marches his troops to Boston, and he embarks for England, never to resume the war. The British gain control of the Delaware River in November.
1777 11 01 John Paul Jones has embarked for France aboard his ship Ranger with news of the victory at Saratoga. Now 30, the Scots-American naval commander adopted his surname in his early 20s after killing a mutineer in Tobago and taking flight to avoid imprisonment while awaiting trial. He has paused to take two prizes en route to France.
1777 11 15 The Articles of Confederation adopted by the Continental Congress at York, Pennsylvania, provide that at least nine states consent to all important measures, requires unanimous consent for any changes in the articles, provides no way for the central government to coerce recalcitrant states into compliance with congressional decisions, and denies Congress any power to tax or to regulate trade. Congress submits the articles to the 13 states for ratification, makes the first of several requisitions of funds, to be paid by the states in paper money, and authorizes confiscation of Loyalists estates.
1777 12 14 George Washington leads his 11,000 ragged troops into Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, December 14 to spend the winter. At least 2,000 are barefoot, and food is scarce. Gen. Howe has captured his salt stocks.

1778 XX XX The detonation of Kavis Alpha neutron star

1779 12 31 English fleet beat Dutch Merchant vessels


1781 01 XX Spanish forces under Don Eugenio Pourre in Michigan take Fort St. Joseph from the British.
1781 12 31 Bank of North America, 1st US bank opens

1782 12 05 Martin Van Buren born.

1783 12 31 Import of African slaves banned by all of the Northern states
1783 XX XX American Revolutionary war ends.

1784 11 24 Zachery Taylor born.

1789 XX XX Presidential election Washington
1789 XX XX George Washington becomes the first President of the United States of America.

1790 03 29 John Tyler born.

1791 04 23 James Buchanan born.

1792 XX XX Mt. Unzen-Dake erupts in Japan resulting in 10,400 deaths.
1792 XX XX Presidential election Washington


1794 03 14 Eli Whitney patents the cotton gin

1795 11 02 James Knox Polk born.

1796 XX XX Presidential election Adams

1797 XX XX John Adams becomes the second President of the United States of America.

1799 12 14 George Washington dies.

1800 01 07 Millard Filmore born.
1800 XX XX U.S. Presidential election
1800 XX XX Cold weather brings a series of white Christmases to England.


Donnie Love
Page 1Site MapHistoryEntertainmentContact